A dog breeder in Germany was so convinced he had taught one of his animals 300 words that he sent
Stanley Coren a video to prove it. Coren, a psychologist at the University of British Columbia and author of several books on dogs, wasn't
"I think that a lot of people tend to overestimate the intelligence of their pets in the same way they tend to overestimate the intelligence of
their kids," said Coren, author of "The Intelligence of Dogs" (Bantam Books, $15.95).
The debate over the intelligence of dogs, cats and other animals may be as old as human attachment to the lower species -- if they are lower.
Some say you can't compare human intelligence and thought to other species'.
But others argue that you can, if you remember that each species has adapted to its environment and developed problem-solving skills.
"What we're usually trying to do is ask the question, 'Do they think like us?' " Coren said.
Can the animal plan and understand a sequence of events that will lead to a specific outcome? Can it think of things that are not in the here and
If so, Coren said, then it is right and proper to attribute intelligence to the animal.
Dogs ahead of cats
The average dog is as smart as a 2-year-old to 27-month-old child and about six months ahead of cats mentally, he said.
Alan Beck, a Purdue University expert on human-animal bonding, believes that it's egocentric to think only in terms of human intelligence.
Humans now have e-mail, he noted, but other animals long have had "pee-mail." Marking territory with urine is another way of sending messages.
Dr. Myrna Milani, an independent scholar and author of "Catsmart" (NTC Publishing Group, $19.95) and other books on cats and dogs, said humans
long have been biased against animal intelligence, in part to justify belief in a special bond between man and God.
"We ask if they're as intelligent as us," Milani says. "Do we ask if we're as intelligent as them?"
Humans have an opposable thumb and a larger brain, but it's pure prejudice to deny that other animals think, she said. "Why do we think evolution
stopped at the neck?"
Rena Durr, a psychology professor at Christian Brothers University in Memphis, subscribes to the notion that animal intelligence is essentially a
Instinctual behaviors never change, whether or not they are appropriate.
"If animals relied solely on instinct, we would not see the individual variations in behavior within species -- for example, the observation that
some cats rescue their babies from burning buildings, while others kill and eat their babies," Durr said.
She noted that octopuses were added to the list of animals that require ethical treatment in labs after one was seen reaching out of his tank and
pulling a string to turn off a light bulb above.
"He preferred the dark, like the bottom of the ocean."
But Durr also suggested that pet owners inflate their animals' intelligence artificially.
"Yes, everyone thinks their cat, dog and baby is a genius," Durr said.
"They assume their baby, cat or dog is an exception, because the thought of this being the norm is inconceivable to them."
Anyone who has ever owned a cat will know that there is no limit to feline charm. But now a US
psychologist has come up with evidence that nature is giving a helping hand.
Nicholas Nicastro, of Cornell University, believes moggies are evolving into supercats that are better able to exploit humans.
He says cats have learned what buttons to press to please their owners after 5,000 years of living with us. Apparently, it is all down to the
miaows they choose to get what they want.
The rewards are clear - more pampering, tastier food and a seat in the comfiest chair. But not all scientists are convinced.
Dr John Bradshaw of Southampton University, UK, says there is no doubt that cats are good at handling humans. But he says there is no evidence to
suggest that artificial selection is taking place.
The term was coined by Charles Darwin to explain how man has shaped plants, crops and domestic animals by selective breeding.
"Cats learn to miaow in ways that manipulate their owners but it's got nothing to do with evolution at all - it's a learned response," says Dr
Bradshaw, an animal behaviourist.
Many cats seem to have a set of miaows they use for different contexts, he says.
For example, a cat might choose a particular noise to signal it wants to be let out and a different one to demand to be fed.
But when you compare cats, there is nothing in common between these miaows, he says.
This suggests that each cat learns how to get its owner's attention, something that is nothing to do with genetics.
"There's a much more plausible explanation," Dr Bradshaw told BBC News Online. "Each cat tends in its own lifetime to learn the noises that
interest its owner."
The controversy arises from a Cornell University evolutionary psychology study.
After 7,000 years of domestication, cats are very different from their wild relatives
Mr Nicastro, a graduate student, put together a sample of 100 different vocalisations from 12 cats.
He played the cat calls back to 26 human volunteers and asked them to rate each one for pleasantness and appeal.
The same set of sounds was played to a second group of volunteers who were asked to rate how urgent and demanding the miaows were.
Humans seem to be able to distinguish between longer, raucous miaows and softer, more pleasing ones.
An urgent or demanding call is "the kind we hear at 7 am when we walk into the kitchen and the cat wants to be fed," says Mr Nicastro.
"The cat isn't forming sentences and saying, specifically, 'take a can of food out of the cupboard, run the can opener and fill my bowl
immediately', but we get the message from the quality of the vocalisation and the context in which it is heard," he adds.
Mr Nicastro, who owns two cats, goes further. He says the pleasant sound is the one a cat might use, say in a rescue centre, to ask to be taken
home. More demanding calls could cause a feline to be left behind to face an uncertain fate.
The psychologist says humans have long been selecting for the most pleasant sounding cats.
"Seven thousand years ago, when we think the ancestors of our domesticated cats began wandering into Egyptian granaries and offering to trade
rodent-control services for shelter, it was probably the pleasant-sounding cats that were selected and accepted into human society," he says.
The idea that a female would go up to a male in a back alley somewhere and say, 'could I hear your miaow to see if the kittens you father will be
appealing to people', couldn't happen
Dr John Bradshaw, Southampton University
It is this point that is the bone of contention for Dr Bradshaw. He says for moggies at least, breeding is not under human control.
Although it might be possible to select for certain vocal abilities in pedigree cats, there is no evidence that this is actually happening.
"In ordinary domestic moggies, they go out and select their own mates," he told BBC News Online.
"The idea that a female would go up to a male in a back alley somewhere and say, 'could I hear your miaow to see if the kittens you father will
be appealing to people', couldn't happen. Cats don't have that level of communication."
But that conclusion is unlikely to satisfy Mr Nicastro. "Cats are domesticated animals that have learned what levers to push, what sounds to make
to manage our emotions," he says. "And when we respond, we too are domesticated animals."